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Presidential Signing Statements
Flowchart reference number 7.
Presidential signing statements are the least valuable to collect for a legislative history because they only happen after Congress has acted.
- Before Ronald Reagan in 1981, only 10 signing statements included presidential interpretations of federal statutes.
- Reagan issued ~250 signing statements to increase presidential influence/power.
- Bush I issued 228 statements.
- Clinton issued 381 statements.
- Bush II issued 1,200 statements.
- >140 federal cases since 1945 cited presidential statements
- Controversial since they are post-enactment.
Read this article by Laura McDonald, Florida State University Law Review, Vol. 38, Issue 1 (Fall 2010), pp. 179-208; 38 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 179 (2010-2011):
Interpretive Worth of Presidential Signing Statements: A New Form of Legislative History (Heinonline)
Finding Signing Statements
U.S. Presidential Library
--Daily Presidential Documents
--Weekly Presidential Documents
--SEARCH for "statement on signing" with quotes
White House (website)
SEARCH this site for "Statement on signing"