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Bluebook Citations: Bluebook Patterns

Guide to basic legal citations to the 20th ed. of The Bluebook.

Patterns in Table 1

Citations are to the 20th edition of The Bluebook, A Uniform System of Citation.

Table 1, Jurisdictions, Parentheticals for Statutory Codes

In Bluebook parentheticals the term LexisNexis is different from LEXIS or Lexis Advance.  LexisNexis always refers to a print publication while the other two are electronic.  LEXIS means the online publication, currently available on Lexis Advance. 

Similarly, when you see West by itself in a parenthetical it always means a print publication.  West, Westlaw means traditional Westlaw.com the current online product.

Example from T1, Hawaii:

Table 1 shows you how to format a citation to Hawaii Revised Statutes.  But the citation shown, like many of the formats shown in Table 1, is to the print publication.  Therefore, it is a pattern to follow.  You have to change the parenthetical to reflect the resource you actually used just in case there is a difference.  So the possible parentheticals are

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 328J-1 (<year in print pub.>). Official print publication.
Haw. Rev. Stat. § 328J-3 (2017) http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol06_Ch0321-0344/HRS0328J/HRS_0328J-0003.htm. Official online publication.


Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann.  § 328J-1 (LexisNexis <year in print pub.>). Unofficial Michie's Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. in print.
Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann.  § 328J-1 (LEXIS <information regarding the currency of the database as provided by the database itself>). Unofficial Michie's Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. in Lexis Advance.


Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann.  § 328J-1 (West <year in print pub.>). Unofficial West's Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. in print.
Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann.  § 328J-1  (West, Westlaw <information regarding the currency of the database as provided by the database itself>). Unofficial West's Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. on Westlaw.